AN05b3_Ch18: Acquiring New Lands
Timeline: 1890 – 1920
FS: Technology + Imperialist Policies + Bold Leadership = World Power.
Main Idea: The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, Intervention on the islands of Puerto Rico/ Cuba, and the Mexican Revolution contributed to the rise of American Influence. Each witnessed a degree of intervention that would become the foundation for long term influence/ involvement.
– 4.II.A: An Emerging Global Involvement
– 4.II.B: Restraint and Involvement: 1914-1920
– WHST. 11-12.6
I. Bold Leaders
A. Theodore Roosevelt
B. Russo-Japanese War: Mediated by US. Elevates reputation of Japan & US.
C. Panama Canal: Connects Atlantic-Pacific oceans. Reduces distance traveled by military/ commercial vessels.
A. Panama Canal: Uneven sea levels, mountainous terrain, disease
B. Weaponry: M1911 pistol, battleships, etc.
C. Medical: Disease=\> Malaria, Yellow Fever
III. Imperialist Policies
A. Hawaiian Annexation
B. Spanish-American War: Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico
C. Platt Amendment- 1901 (addition to Cuban Constitution)
D. Philippine-American War
E. Open-Door Policy
F. Panamanian (Rebellion) Independence
G. Roosevelt Corollary: Addendum to Monroe Doctrine. Protect US interests via intervention in Latin America. Hemispheric Police Force. Dollar Diplomacy. “Speak softly, but carry a big stick.”
H. Pres. Woodrow Wilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy”: US has a moral responsibility to intervene in violent takeovers=\> Mexican Revolution (Huerta Gov’t, Pancho Villa’s Incursion)
I. Morality Check: Gadsden Purchase, Philippine Purchase, Panama Purchase
IV. Closer Look: Puerto Rico
A. Military Rule initially
B. Foraker Act- 1900
1. Civilian Rule reestablished
2. Citizenship- 1917
3. Today: Commonwealth Status
V. Closer Look: Cuba
A. Military Rule.
B. Platt Amendment- 1901 (addition to Cuban Constitution)
1. US right to intervene
2. Limit treaty-making power of Cubans
3. Cuban Debt Control
4. US Right to buy/ lease land for military/ refueling stations
C. Protectorate Status: until 1944. (affairs are influenced by a foreign power ostensibly as the role of caretaker/ protector of the client)
VI. Closer Look: The Philippines
A. Philippine-American War: Rebel leader: Emilio Aguinaldo
3 years; dead- 4000 Americans/ 20000 Filipino; cost of war 20 x price of archipelago when purchased from Spain ($400 million).
B. US commits similar acts in quelling rebellion that it accused Spain of doing prior to 1898. US develops technology to address the guerrilla warfare in dense rainforests=\> M1911 (45 cal.) semi-automatic pistol.
C. Annexed initially, then Independent: 1946
VII. Closer Look: China
A. “Sick Man of Asia”
B. Spheres of Influence carved by European/ Japanese powers.
C. 1899 “Open Door Notes” =\> Sec. John Hay to foreign powers interested in China =\> Open Door Policy: Foundational to US stance that open access to foreign markets is critical to US economic survival.
D. Boxer Rebellion (1900)
1. Chinese backlash led by a ‘Secret Society’ against foreign powers.
2. Put down forcibly by a coalition of European, American, & Japanese forces.
3. Thousands of Chinese dead.
4. ‘Boxer Protocol’ (Agreement ending hostilities) further weakened the Qing Dynasty in reality and ‘in the eyes’ of Chinese.)
VIII. Closer Look: Mexico
A. Upto 1911 Rule by a dictator friendly to US. US economic ties strengthened.
B. Civil Unrest as gap widens between ‘Haves’ & ‘Have Nots’.
C. Rule changes hands multiple times (violently) in 5 years (1911 – 1915): Diaz, Madero, Huerta, Carranza. US support for Carranza angers Mexican rebels (Francisco “Pancho” Villa) who are predominantly peasants (Emiliano Zapata).
D. Woodrow Wilson’s policy
1. “Watchful Waiting”=\> A 1915 Incident leads to American invasion and capture of Veracruz.
2. Murders & Raid into New Mexico by Pancho Villa (1915-1916)
3. Invasion of Mexico by Gen. John ‘Black Jack’ Pershing to apprehend Villa. (1916-1917)
4. War forming in Europe and need for peace, US & Mexico decide to end hostilities.
V. Summary: Why it matters today.
The United States maintains a strong military and political presence in strategic worldwide locations. American involvement in conflicts around 1900 led to involvement in WWI and later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.