AN03c_Ch12: Khmer Empire of Cambodia
Timeline: 4th C. – 17th C. CE
FS: Geography and commerce contribute to the birth of the Khmer Empire.
Main Idea: The unique geographic conditions of S-E Asia contributed to it being one of the most traveled places on earth. The resulting cultural diversity nurtured a great civilization in the region.
A. Map Exercise
B. Vocabulary Review
C. Trade routes (eg. Strait of Malacca) abound and contribute to a culturally diverse population.
D. Geologically active (e.g. Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, etc.)
II. Commercial Activity & Cultural Diffusion (4th – 16th C.)
A. Trade routes used by Ancient Indians, Chinese, and Europeans (beginning in the 16th C.)
B. Plagued by piracy for centuries.
C. Fees for use of ports have traditionally been charged.
D. Valuable products traversing the routes included: spices, precious metals and gems, and an assortment of goods from China.
E. Spread of Ideas
1. Buddhist Missionaries
5. Inter-marriage (traders & native peoples)
III. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia
A. Founded by the Khmer people of Cambodia
B. Longest-lasting of the SE Asian empires
C. Angkor Period: Height of the civilization lasting from 850 – 1250 CE. Capital city =\> Angkor.
1. Brick, Stone, & Wood structures
2. Angkor Wat was the grandest of structures (Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu)
D. In general, the Hindu caste system was not widely accepted in SE Asia. In keeping with this development, women enjoyed higher status and access to education and government.
E. Foreign invasions contributed to the eventual collapse of the empire in 1430: Mongols and Thais.
IV. Islamic & Chinese Influence
A. Islam reaches the region via merchants. To this day, Indonesia has the largest Islamic population in the world.
B. China influenced Annam (Vietnam) for centuries. Annam was a tributary state. Aside from being a major trader of goods in the region, China’s cultural influence didn’t reach much farther than the borders of Annam.
V. Modern Challenges: The Khmer Rouge of the 1970’s
VI. Summary: Why it matters now.
Chinese cultural influences still affect East and Southeast Asia today.
– Article: Khmer Rouge leaders on trial (26 June 2011 \)
– Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: A comprehensive archaeological map of the world’s largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia.
– World History: Patterns of Interaction
– (HR) Read page 439 – 441 “Recollections on the Customs of Cambodia” by Zhou Daguan, 13th C. (Time Permitting)