2. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal obligations that their land ownership placed on them. They may have acquired this land via inheritance.
4. Land granted to a vassal by a lord in return for loyalty (fealty) and service.
7. The title granted to the person who has the most land in Feudal Europe, excluding clergyman. As the feudal system evolves over the centuries, the title becomes inherited, regardless of land quantity.
10. This is a type of feudal investiture involving Church offices and performed by someone who is not a clergyman. 2 words
12. An estate from which a lord’s family gained its livelihood. It was the economic heart of Feudalism.
13. A person who earns a living via agriculture. Often, they are poor.
15. A socio-economic system based on land ownership. Bonds of loyalty/ service are formed from such ownership.
16. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal responsibilities that their land ownership placed on them, including fighting. The Church was the largest landowner in Feudal Europe and thus added feudal obligations to the tasks of this group.
1. The ability to provide for all your basic needs, locally, without depending on external trade networks. 2 words
3. A ritual that symbolically confirms an agreement via the exchange of objects for service.
5. This Viking leader became vassal to a King from Western Europe in one of the earliest examples of a feudal investiture ceremony/ ritual.
6. Feudal European warrior.
8. In one of the earliest investiture ceremonies, between a Viking and a European king, this fief was granted. Its modern name evolved from it being known as the “Northmen’s Land” (Land of the Normans).
9. One who is bound in loyalty and service to a lord as a result of the investiture ceremony.
11. The Manorial village/ town evolved into an commercially active site over time. It was the home and work area for this group of skilled craftsmen.
14. Most peasants were classified as this in Feudal Europe. Though not slaves, they and their children were ‘tied’ to the land they toiled over.