Pu04a_Native American Civilizations
Pu04a_Native American Civilizations
6. A social, political, & economic system based on land ownership.
7. Japan’s 1st shogunate. Repelled Mongols that reached Japan.
11. ‘Human-like’ or ‘Man-like’, but not necessarily in form or physical appearance.
13. Marks the gateway to a Shinto Shrine. Often found near or in a body of water.
14. ~80% of Japan is covered by this.
17. A literary (poetic) form marked by a 5-7-5 syllabic structure. Reached it’s height during the Heian Period (8th-12th C.).
18. The title of one who is entrusted with the responsibility of acting as a ‘conduit’ between the natural and supernatural worlds.
20. “Divine Wind”. Protector of Japan and mortal enemy of the Mongols.
22. One expression of Japan’s geologically active nature.
23. Families related to one another via a common ancestor.
24. A clan that has historically and traditionally been dedicated to a particular Kami. One responsibility for this type of clan is to maintain a shrine dedicated to that Kami. This tradition dates back to the prehistoric period in Japan (before 7th C).
25. The ethical code of the Samurai warrior.
26. In times of peace, the Samurai warrior becomes this for his Daimyo. It is an administrative role.
27. Capital city of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
1. Having originated, or occurring naturally, in a region or environment.
2. The watery result of an oceanic earthquake.
3. Japanese feudal warrior.
4. Capital city of modern Japan.
5. A Samurai (land-owning) lord.
8. A category of faiths that view the natural world as having a spiritual element.
Objects in nature are generally infused with a spiritual force.
9. Overall military commander of feudal Japan. Traditionally, appointed by the Emperor, but is the ‘actual’ day-to-day ruler of the state.
10. Images and/ or objects of religious reverence. Hint: Revisit the differences between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church during the Early Middle Ages.
12. A Samurai without a lord.
15. The “Divine Sun”. The top entity within Shinto’s pantheon of divine forces.
16. Japan’s indigenous religion.
17. Japan’s cultural golden age.
19. This form of Buddhism was imported from China ~6th C. It became central to the Samurai ethic for its dependence on meditation (focused thought) and self-discipline.
20. Japanese word literally translated as “divine” or “spirit”. They’re anthropomorphic forces within nature.
21. A group of islands.
Bushido is the unwritten code of conduct of the Samurai. Literally, Bushido means “warrior – samurai – ways”. Bushi is a term for warrior, but directly infers a more prestigious or higher class warrior. The “ways” or “way” is a term used by most “do-martial arts” (such as: Judo, Kendo, Aikido, and Iaido), which means “the way to … “
Bushido is comprised of a system or standards of moral principles that became the soul of the Samurai, during the feudal periods of Japan. It developed over the centuries from the influences of Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Shintoism, and the expression of these affectations, had their medium in the visual and literary arts such as painting, poetry, and living the way of life (Bushido) they chose to take. Each of these gifts molded and shaped Bushido, as a moral standard of conduct to follow.
Influencing Bushido, Zen Buddhism lent to the Samurai a very Stoic disposition. This Stoicism was realized out of a genuine respect for life and also for death. Death, an inevitable eventuality of our own lives, is as much a part of nature as is life. It gives us an added level of thought and meaning to our existence. With the advent of death, there is the introduction of life. There are strong human emotions of anger, remorse, and detachment, etc., that are associated with death that complicate its understanding. However we are gifted by these very same feelings, that allow us to appreciate life and the things we enjoy and love. We most notably appreciate the things we take for granted once they are gone forever. The Samurai trust and faith in nature was because of the great admiration and respect for both life and death.
In tune with this level of consciousness, Shintoism also influenced the Bushido of the Samurai. To seek honor by first looking inside the soul and confront the intimate fears that we hide from ourselves, and that plague our psyche in everyday life. This is the purification of one’s soul — “… to know thyself “. In addition, Shintoism brought a sense of filial piety and loyalty to the family and homeland. When you “… know yourself, you know your weaknesses and strengths, and most of all – you know where you belong.” This sense of belonging has been attributed to the patriotic and nationalistic culture of Japaneven to this day.
Another factor in the backbone of the code of Bushido was Confucianism. It bonded community and family relationships. These relationships had several different moral priorities or qualities to them. In feudal Japan, the samurai served various different lords and their loyalty was given to them. This association was that of servant and master. The samurai himself was the head of his family. The safety and well-being depended upon him. His role was that of head of the house, husband, father, brother, or son.
The Bushido of the samurai had very deep roots in the philosophies of Zen Buddhism, Confucianism and Shintoism. With such historical origins, it is understandable why Bushido was not just a mere belief, but a culture that became the hallmark of the samurai for centuries. And this lifestyle was not forced on the samurai, but was chosen of free will. It was a serious choice to be sure, and one that they were very proud to follow.
© 1999, C. A. Matrasko. All rights reserved.
Cheryl Matrasko started Aikido in 1965, studying under Isao Takahashi as her first instructor. She enjoyed working out under many well known Aikido instructors during her tenure with Takahashi Sensei and thereafter following his death in 1971. Cheryl has dedicated time with instructors in Northern Shaolin Long-Fist, Seven Stars Praying Mantis, and Daito-Ryu Aikijujitsu. Currently, she is instructing Aikido at NorthwesternUniversity’s Chicago Campus, Associate Instructor at NorthShore Aikido in Skokie, and supporting Aikido World Journal.
1. What has contributed to the development of the Bushido Code?
2. Which principle or value did each contribute to this code?
3. Why would “knowing oneself” be an important part of a warrior’s training?
Many of Europe’s Jews lived in the growing towns. Because Jews were forbidden to hold land, they had never been part of the feudal system. Jews were also barred from many businesses, and so, they often did work that Christians could not or would not do. Being literate, Jews sometimes worked as business managers for large landholders. The Church forbade Christians to lend money at interest, yet many people still needed to borrow money. As a result, some Jews became moneylenders. From here, it was a short step to all types of banking. When trade began to revive in the later Middle Ages, Jews were often active in long distance trade. Jewish communities in different cities had the links necessary to arrange credit and transfer of money.
Expelling the Jews and Muslims made Spain a religiously united nation, but it hurt the country economically. Many of Spain’s leaders in business and trade had been Muslims or Jews.
 ‘In the same year there was a great plague of sheep everywhere in the realm, so that in one place there died in one pasturage more than 5,000 sheep and so rotted that neither beast nor bird would touch them. And there were small prices for everything on account of the fear of death, for there were very few who cared about riches or anything else. A man could have a horse which before was worth 40s. for 6s. … .. Sheep and cattle went wandering over fields and through crops, and there was no one to go and drive or gather them, so that the number cannot be reckoned which perished in the ditches of every district for lack of herdsmen; for there was such a lack of servants that no one knew what he ought to do…. Many crops perished in the fields for want of someone to gather them. . .
 The Scots, hearing of the cruel pestilence of the English, believed it had come to them from the avenging hand of God, and – as it was commonly reported in England – took for their oath when they wanted to swear, “By the foul death of England.” But when the Scots, believing the English were under the shadow of the dread vengeance of God, came together in the forest of Selkirk with purpose to invade the whole realm of Englandthe plague () came upon them and the sudden and awful cruelty of death winnowed them, so that about 5,000 died in a short time. Then the rest, some feeble, some strong, determined to return home, but the English followed and overtook them and killed many of them….
 At the same time priests were in such poverty everywhere that many churches were. . . lacking the divine offices, masses, matins, vespers, sacraments, and other rites. . . Within a short time a very great multitude of those whose wives had died in the pestilence flocked into orders, of whom many were illiterate and little more than laymen except so far as they knew how to read, although they could not understand.
 Meanwhile the King sent proclamation into all the counties that reapers and other laborers should not take more than they had been accustomed to take, under the penalty appointed by the statute. But the laborers were so … obstinate that they would not listen to the King’s command, but if anyone wished to have them he had to give them what they wanted and either lose his fruit and crops, or satisfy the … wishes of the workmen..
 Afterward, the King had many laborers arrested and sent to prison; many withdrew themselves and went into the forests and woods; and those who were taken were heavily fined. Their ring-leaders were made to swear that they would not take daily wages beyond the ancient custom then they were freed …….
 After the aforesaid pestilence many buildings, great and small, fell into ruins in every city, borough, and village for lack of inhabitants; likewise many villages and hamlets became desolate, not a house being left in them, all having died who dwelt there; and it was probable that many such villages would never be inhabited again.’
Your responses to these film questions will form the foundation of, or supplement, your notes for this lesson. The focus of the films will be the Northern Italian city of Sienna. This city will provide a case-study to investigate the origins and development of civic pride and citizenship. The city will also provide a vantage point from which to identify the feudal bonds (socio-economic, political) that are straining under the weight of ‘change’ spreading throughout Western Europe. Southern Europe (particularly Northern Italy), unlike Northern Europe, is fast becoming a nursery for municipal rivalries and “one-upmanship”.
1. How is modern ‘civic pride’ connected to the past?
2. Naturally, one’s pride in town/ city would lead to competition with neighboring towns/ cities.
a. Offer two examples of how these Medieval municipalities compete.
b. Can you offer other methods of competition that Northern Italian towns/ cities of the High Middle Ages might pursue?
1. Consider your own situation as a ‘New Yorker’ when responding to these questions.
a. Why would Northern Italian cities, like Sienna, be proud to be called ‘citizens’ instead of ‘subjects’?
b. How would this ‘feeling’ threaten the livelihood of feudal landholders like the Pope (Church)?