AN03a_An Era of Growth and Disunion- Expanding Markets and Moving West
Timeline: 1825 – 1847
FQ: How did Westward Expansion Impact Economic Growth?
I. Markets Change
A. US Markets Expand
1. Entrepreneurialism (“The Business of America is Business”)
a. Capitalism: Economic system where private businesses and individuals own the means of production.
b. Entrepreneurs: “To undertake”. Investors willing to take financial risk in return for economic success.
2. New Inventions/ Innovations
b. Vulcanization of Rubber (Goodyear)
c. Sewing Machine (Singer)
3. (Rural & Urban) Household Economics
a. Farm mechanization to meet demand for food.
b. Farm equipment bolsters manufacturing.
c. Economies of scale forces prices down. Consumerism rises for work/ pleasure.
B. An Economic Revolution
1. Communication: Telegraph, 1837. Instant contact. (Simultaneity achieved).
a. Steamships (Rivers), Canals (Coast => Interior. Shipping costs fall)
b. Railroads (very fast, economy of scale, cargo & passenger) Time standardization, 1840’s, makes Synchronicity possible today- as in Daylight Savings Time clock changes.
C. Markets Connect Regions (Sections)
1. Industrial/ Carrying Trade- North
a. Factory Capital
b. Machinery Capital
2. Agricultural (Cash Crop)- South
a. Land Capital
b. Slave Capital
3. Agricultural (Food Stuffs)- West
a. Land Capital
b. Machinery Capital (John Deere & Steel Plow, Cyrus McCormick & Reaper)
4. Economies of Scale- Efficiency rises, Prices fall.
II. “Manifest Destiny”
A. An Attractive Frontier
1. Manifest Destiny: Ordained by God to expand across the West to the Pacific.
2. Opportunity: Expanse, cost, trade benefits.
B. Settlers and Native Peoples
1. Black Hawk War: Repetition of past/ future conflict brought about be US encroachment (Remember the ‘Miami and Little Turtle’?).
2. Laramie Treaty: “Oft heard refrain”.
a. Settlers Encroach on Native land
c. Military responds, defeats Natives
d. Natives forced to move West and a monetary (annual payments to Natives)/ territorial (land east of Rocky Mountains) settlement imposed.
C. Trails West
1. Sante Fe & Oregon Trails:
a. Into “New Mexico” territory, Oregon Territory respectively
b. Previously well-traveled paths westward from the Mississippi.
c. Trade, then later settlements, were motivating factors.
2. Mormon Migration: Webquest
a. Pivotal Figures?
b. Unique Belief?
c. Why Move?
3. Territorial Disputes
a. Britain: Eastern-Northern Canadian border settled, but continued expansion westward brings border issues to North-West (Oregon Territory).
b. James K. Polk: “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”
c. Fur trade declines, little arable land north of 49th parallel=> Treaty to extend previously negotiated border with Canada from the East toward the Pacific. This is the current border to today.
III. ‘Texas’ Available for Business
A. Spanish ‘Mission’ System
1. Win Natives as allies
2. Convert to Roman Catholicism
3. Create strongholds in isolated expanse (Presidios => Forts)
B. Mexican Independence, 1821
1. Mexican-Native Relationship turns sour. Prior goals of the ‘mission’ are replaced by economic enterprise.
2. Economic Enticements by Mexico
a. Expands trade w/ US flowing along Sante Fe/ Oregon Trails
b. Encourage US settlers to populate lands (New Mexico, Texas) in return for loyalty.
c. Stephen Austin: 297 Land grants totaling 52,569 acres + 10 yrs of tax exemptions.
Ponder: Why would Mexico offer such incredible terms?
-Make land productive and generate wealth
-Control Native American Raiders
IV. Mexican – US Tensions Escalate
A. Texas (Tejas) Independence
1. Non-Mexicans vastly outnumber Mexican (“Tejanos” => Mexican Texans)
2. Culture/ Political Clash
a. Spanish vs. English
b. Protestant vs. Roman Catholic
c. Settlers bring slaves, Mexico outlawed slavery 1824.
d. Texas far from Mexico City => Desire for greater ‘local’ control
3. Tensions Rise
a. Mexico restricts US settlements in Texas
b. Mexico restricts trade with US
c. Mexican President (Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, aka Santa Anna) suspends constitution, becomes dictator. Revokes local rule of northern provinces (New Mexico, Texas, California, etc.)
4. Rebellions & Independence
a. “Remember the Alamo”, 1835 (San Antonio, Tx). All 187 US defenders died (Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett). Martyrdom. Hundreds of Mexicans also in the mission perished.
b. Sam Houston: Defeats Santa’s forces and capture him, 1836.
c. Texas becomes Independent Republic.
1. Annexation, 1838?
a. Slavery Issue
b. Political Influence Issue
2. 1844 Presidential Election
a. Westward Expansion a Hot topic
b. Slaveholder Wins Election- James K. Polk
c. 1845: Texas is admitted as 28th State. Mexico recalls its US ambassador.
V. The Mexican War
A. Pres. Polk Urges War (1845)
1. Territorial Aspirations: Texas, New Mexico, California
2. Endorses Texas’ border claim (Rio Grande vs. Neuces River => 100 miles difference).
3. Attempts to purchase territory fails.
4. Z. Taylor sent with troops to block Rio Grande
5. Public Opinion Split (on slave question, NOT expansion) Sectionally.
B. The War Plays Out (1846)
1. Ignition: War is declared as US Troops, on Mexican soil, are killed in a skirmish. *Rep. Abraham Lincoln protests.
2. High population #s of US settlers in New Mexico & California helps US cause.
3. Poor Leadership/ unstable Gov’t of Mexico vs. US officers that will eventually lead the Union/ Confederate forces of the Civil War. (Grant, Lee)
4. Invasion of Mexico (Gen. Zachary Taylor, Gen. Winfield Scott); Capital Captured, No Contest.
C. The Spoils of War (for the victor)
1. The Good: US increases size by 33%
2. The Bad: 37,000+ dead, most by disease.
3. The Ugly: Souring of Mexican – American Relations to the present day.
4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848.
a. Present States of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah for $15 million.
b. Add 1853 Gadsden Purchase ($10 million) & Oregon border settlement=> modern US borders set (lower 48).
5. Z. Taylor, Whig, wins 1848 Presidential Elections despite “Free Soil” Democrats.
D. California Gold-Rush
1. 1848, Gold Discovered at Sutter’s Mill, Califonia
2. Gold, Gold, Gold! Yelled the “Forty-Niners” in 1849.
3. Practically all work, other than manufacturing shovels and pickaxes, cease in California.
4. Over-night (diverse) population explosion (1848 – 1850: overland migration 400 – 44,000; SanFrancisco 1,000 – 35,000).
5. Everything glitters until California requests admission to the Union. Then things go bad.