A03_HGS-An Age of Exchange and Encounter 500 to 1500 CE (Ch.12 – Ch.15)
Along with class lessons and activities, these assignments for Ch.12 – Ch.15 will help us address these essential questions…
- How did the development of kingdoms and empires in East Asia help spread religions, culture, trade, and technological innovations?
- What political and economic systems emerged in the Middle Ages and how was the Church a unifying force?
- What religious, economic, and political events led to the development of Western Europe?
- How did early African societies develop from hunting-gathering groups into empires?
- Religious & Ethical Systems
- Empire Building
- Cultural Interaction
- Power & Authority
- Interaction with the Environment
Use the World History: Patterns of Interaction (POI) textbook to complete the assignment below.
Refer to the course calendar to acquire due dates and other instructions.
Write complete sentences as you describe the historical significance of the term, name, or phrase. Your description must relate specifically to the chapter’s historical content & context (Time, Place, Circumstance).
When submitting this assignment as a digital file, be sure to follow these steps:
-If you hand-wrote the assignment, scan the paper and convert to a digital file (PDF).
-If you are typing, convert the file into a PDF file using the same program you typed with.
-There are four assignments in Unit03: A03c to A03f, representing the four chapters we’ll address. Please submit each assignment as a separate file. Label each file in the format: 2-digit Pd#_LastNameFirstName-A03# (Example: 09_SmithJohn-A03c). Remember, when labeling files, an ‘O’ is NOT a Zero ‘0’. ‘O’ is a letter and Zero ‘0’ is a number.
Empires In East Asia (600 to 1350 CE)
Terms, Names, Phrases
-Genghis Khan (Chinggis San)
European Middle Ages 500 – 1500 CE
Terms, Names, Phrases
-Holy Roman Empire
The Formation of Western Europe 800 – 1500 CE
Terms, Names, Phrases
-Richard I (the Lion-Hearted)
-William the Conqueror
-Philip II -Estates-General
-Hundred Years’ War
-Joan of Arc
Societies and Empires of Africa – 800 to 1500 CE
Terms, Names, Phrases
Proj02d_MM02d- African Civilization (1500 BCE – 700 CE)
While we were away in Rome and Constantinople, the African continent was still practicing it’s ancient role as a nurturer of unique cultures and civilizations. The continent’s natural resources will create the conditions for civilizations to develop. While its geographic diversity will shape many societies particularly as they intermingle and culturally diffuse.
I. Purpose: To explore the diversity and development of Africa’s societies within it’s distinct geographic zones.
A. Three societies will be investigated:
-Kingdom of Aksum (Axum)
B. Five (5) ‘Areas of Study’ will guide our investigation within each society. For each of our societies, your group must select three (3) of the items below to further investigate. It doesn’t matter which items you select for each of the three societies listed above, as long as one of those items is Context.
-Context: Time, Place, Circumstance.
All class groups should organize themselves accordingly and employ Mindmeister to complete the task.
Consider: Who?, What?, Where?, When?, Why?, How? questions.
B. The due date is Sunday, 15 Jan., but refer to the course calendar to be certain that changes have not been made.
Your group is tasked to create a Mindmap rich in content that will reveal to any viewer how African peoples and the societies they developed were a continuation of the continents ancient role as incubator for unique/ diverse cultures and advanced civilizations.
Label the Central Idea: Pd#_African Peoples and Civilizations 1500 BCE to 700 CE-Grp# (Ex.: 08_ African Peoples and Civilizations 1500 BCE to 700 CE-03. Which means Period 8, assigned the African Peoples and Civilizations 1500 BCE to 700 CE, and Group #3. In addition, ensure that the same title appears in the map’s profile. That profile can be accessed via an icon (letter ‘I’ within a circle) appearing in the upper-left corner of your Mindmap screen.
Citations, links, assign tasks, etc. in accord with previous projects. Images/ graphics should be used judiciously. Avoid inclusion if the image does not contribute relevant and substantive content. Examples of poor image choices would include historical figures. Examples of good image choices would include maps, charts, tools, etc. with an explanation of it’s historic value.
These instructions provide you with guidance, but your experience should shape your final product. Previous standards remain in force.
Sources & Resources: I encourage you to seek out additional sources for a deeper contextual understanding of the topic. Here are some to start you off.
World History: Patterns of Interaction. (published by Holt-McDougall, 2012)
Mr.V’s Course Website Resources
To view the presentation that accompanies the slide descriptions below, please navigate to Pr02a_Ancient Greece’s Environment
(Cover) Slide #1: The Parthenon
Slide #2: Satellite image with the section of interest encircled in the Mediterranean Sea.
Slide #3: Closeup image of the area in the previous slide. Take note of the mountainous terrain, numerous islands (archipelago), and the two peninsulas that makeup the southern area of the Balkans, where Greece resides. These topographical conditions will influence the development of any people who decide to reside there.
Slide #4: Let’s Make a Prediction. By analyzing the previous map for terrain features, relative location to other land masses, and climate you may be able to predict one or more traits for any societies that ultimately develop there. Discuss this with your class neighbor and see what you can agree on.
Slide #5 & #6: This area has been a terminus for migrations and travelers. Peoples have entered the area from the South (Crete, Egypt), East (Asia Minor), and the North (Europe). The Mycenaeans may be the descendants of Indo-European migrations into Europe. The area was a “melting pot” of cultures.
We’ve spoken a bit about the Greek Dark Age before. It appears that the Dark Age period coincided with the arrival of the Dorians; a nomadic people with a lifestyle centered around warfare (Chariots being an important part).
The map on slide #6 shows key features: two peninsulas that makeup the heart of Greece, key city-states, and the Greater Greek world of the Aegean Sea basin.
Slide #7: Here we see a ruin from the island of Crete. This is a colorful remnant of a palace that most-likely belonged to the King of the Minoan civilization. The Minoans proximity to the Greek islands and Ancient Egypt allowed them to be a middleman in the exchange of ideas between the three civilizations. This and the following images depict traits of Minoan culture that the Greeks adapt later on, but many others may have been previously influenced or introduced from Egypt by way of Crete.
Slide #8: The Minoans were among the earliest of civilizations in the Mediterranean. Outside of Mesopotamia, they have developed one of the earliest languages in the region. Being relegated to an island, it makes sense that they will depend on the sea for travel and trade. The wealth that sea commerce generated funded a rich tradition in the arts. Here we see an amphitheater carved-out of the rocky ground.
Slide #9: Sports played an important-enough role in daily life that it was preserved in this wall painting (Pugilists => Boxers). Notice that the contestants are naked.
Slide #10: This mountain image is a reminder that the region is geologically active. The forces that produce mountains and the same that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. It’s highly likely that the Minoan civilization came to quick end from a cataclysmic natural event.
Slide #11: An aerial image of Mycenae showing the city as a fortified area (Walls with ramparts). The mountain serves to protect the side of the city. The mountainous conditions of the Greek archipelago suited the establishment of City-States, like in Mesopotamia. Mountains make communication difficult and hemmed people into small tightly-packed spaces. Of course, the numerous islands that comprise the archipelago helped with that as well.
Slide #12: Mycenaean tunnel. Notice the early ‘arch’ design forming the tunnel roof. The arch was a very important architectural development. Granted, this triangular arch will be overshadowed by the innovative ‘curved arch’ many centuries later. But, it is a start.
Slide #13: Athens and its acropolis (political and cultural center of an ancient city. Often marked by many stone buildings). Notice the Amphitheatre in the foreground? This is physical evidence of the Greek theatrical arts.
Slide #14: Greek vase depicting a maritime scene.
Slide #15: An artist rendition of a Greek merchant vessel. Square sails were the norm in the ancient European world.
Slide #16: A cross-section of the previous vessel. Notice the absence of a prominent keel.
Slide #17: Amphorae. Clay vessels commonly used in the Mediterranean during the classical period. They would carry olive oil, wine, and grain. They were shaped like this because they were inserted into slots on shelves in the ships. Proper loading of these amphorae were important in keeping the ship stable in the water. Improperly loaded cargo can capsize the merchant vessel.
Slide #18 – 22: Sources and outline maps
AN02a_New Directions in Government and Society- Ancient Greece’s Environment (Ch.05)
Timeline: 20th C. – 4th C. BCE
FQ: How did Greece’s geography contribute to the foundation of a unique civilization?
Like many (great) civilized societies, before and since, the ancient Greeks were impacted by the conditions under which they lived and worked (context). The roots of Greek culture can be traced to the interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures. Interaction among these cultures, a unique environment, and the circumstances of daily life shaped what was to become the seed of ‘Western’ civilization.
A. Time = 20th C.- 5th C. BCE
B. Place = Balkans, Peloponnese peninsula, ~ area of modern Greece.
C. Why Important? = Impact on Western world.
“Western” refers to those cultures that are significantly influenced by the civilization of ancient Greece and Rome. Among Western societies today, we would include much of Europe, portions of the Mediterranean basin, the Americas, and Australia, among others.
A. Seafaring People (Easy Access to Water)
- Maritime Fleet Develops.
- Communication expands beyond Greek lands.
- External Commerce Thrives.
- Military Expansion is Possible.
B. Mountains keep Greeks Divided
- Many politically independent City-States.
- Limited arable land can only support relatively small population densities.
C. Moderate Climate
- Increased Outdoors Activities
- Increased interpersonal communication and interaction.
- Public/ Civic life is immensely important.
D. Lack of Mineral and Agricultural Resources
* World History: Patterns of Interaction, Ch.05. (Published by Holt-McDougal)
* Student Maps
* Pr02a_Ancient Greece’s Environment
Pr02a_Ancient Greece’s Environment (Slide by Slide description)
FilmQ01b2_Beginnings of Civilization: River Valley Civilizations (Ancient Egypt: The Gift Of The Nile)
Timeline: 4th-2nd Millennium BCE (Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age)
FQ: How did environment and religion permeate ancient Egyptian daily routines?
Much of what remains of ancient Egypt is dripping with religious significance. Is it possible that this society placed so much emphasis on the importance of faith that it dedicated huge quantities of resources and human labor to ensure that traces of its faith was preserved for all eternity? Themes addressed in this lesson (geography, political systems, and culture) will remain important when studying the river valley societies of Mesopotamia, the Indus, and the Huang He.
I: The Nile River
A. Ancient Egypt was referred to by Herodotus as “the gift of the Nile”. How would you describe the Nile’s importance to Egypt based on this reference? Be prepared to offer evidence in support of this description.
B1. News accounts of a flood often instills a sense of sadness because of the loss of life and property damage that may result. Why was the flooding of the Nile river rarely viewed in such a manner?
B2. Didn’t people living along the banks lose their homes?
B3. Unlike the Tigris-Euphrates rivers, the Nile observed a natural ‘routine’ that contributed to Egyptian civilization. Identify this special characteristic. Ponder how it contributed to the greatness of Ancient Egyptian civilization. (1)
C. What do the terms ‘Upper’ and ‘Lower’ Egypt refer to?
II: Kingship (Monarchy) (2)
A. The Narmer Palette is an artifact that helped archaeologists (Egyptologists) reveal ‘secrets’ of the Egyptian view of Kingship. (3)
How did the palette’s images offer an account of the formation of an Egyptian kingdom we’ve come to know?
B. Recent archaeological finds notwithstanding, there is a record of 31 Egyptian dynasties that spanned ~3000 years. Identify the three chronological divisions historians use to categorize these dynasties. (3)
III: Pyramids & the Passage into Eternity
A. All ancient Egyptians are believed to have adhered to a universal concept. The concept explains how all things coexist in a ‘harmonious order’. Identify the term used to represent this concept.
B. How might you explain the divinity of the Pharaoh? How did this monarch acquire that trait?
C. Which concern may have contributed to the use of pyramids as tombs and then their eventual abandonment? (4)
D. Why were tombs filled with valuables and supply of daily necessities if the monarch was dead?
E1. Describe what the Ka is and its role in Egyptian religious beliefs.
E2. What are the requirements to keep the Ka from being ‘lost’.
E3. Why would the need for mummification be a logical ‘parallel belief’ in an Egyptian faith that holds the concept of ‘Ka’ and ‘Maat’ as important? (5)
E4. By the 16th C. Egyptian mummies became targets of looters. How did looters reap wealth by desecrating these corpses? (6)
F. How did a stone pyramid evolve from a single mud-brick Mastaba? (7)
G. Why were the tombs in the Valley of the Kings as appropriate as tombs placed in pyramids?
1. Ponder: To think about and consider the importance of a thing or idea.
2. Kingship: That which makes one a king. Qualities or roles that is befitting a monarch.
3. Within the decade of the 1990s, archaeological finds in Egypt indicate that there may have been a king (Pharaoh) of a unified Egypt that predates Narmer.
4. By familiarizing yourself with the ancient Egyptian creation myth (Ex.: Atum), you’ll be introduced to the significance of the ‘pyramidal shape’ as a divine symbol.
5. The myth of Osirus is an example of how myths answer questions concerning matters lost to time.
6. Looter: In this context, anyone who enters a tomb (‘breaking in’) for the purpose of stealing items of material or spiritual value.
7. Mastaba: Arabic for ‘Step’ or ‘Bench’.
● Handouts: Stars Said to Tell Age of Pyramids and assorted myths.
● PBS Video: PYRAMID, hosted by David Macaulay. ©1988. A Unicorn Projects, Inc. Production. [~30 min. for edited version]
AN01b4_Beginnings of Civilization- River Dynasties in China (Ch.02)
Timeline: 3rd – 1st Millennium BCE (covers the years ~3000 – 250 BCE)
FS: River Dynasties in China- From Legendary Chinese Dynasties to the Foundation of Modern Civilized Life.
China’s modern dynastic history, as we have come to understand it, begins with the Qin. However, there is a uniform cultural thread that had its origins before the Qin and continues to this very day. The origins of Chinese civilization and culture bring us to the Huang He river valley and the ‘legendary’ dynasties.
The three legendary dynasties contribute and refine the elements of Chinese civilization to produce what could arguably be labeled as the longest-lasting, continuous, civilized society.
I. Overcoming and Exploiting Environmental Conditions
The peoples of the Huang He river settlements are believed to be the ancestors of the Han. The Han have traditionally been the largest ethnic group within the area of historical China (which lies in the Northeast of modern China, centered on the North China Plain).
A form of kingship develops here with striking similarities (and differences) to that which developed in Egypt.
Significant topographic barriers and distance lie between the early peoples of the Huang He river valley and other ancient civilizations (Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Indus Valley). The Huang He peoples were in a position to cultivate a civilization with distinct characteristics fostered by the topographic barriers that surrounded them: Tibetan Plateau and Taklamakan desert are to the West; Gobi desert and Mongolian Plateau are to the North; Himalayan mountain range and the South China sea lie to the South; and The Yellow and East China seas are to the East. This condition meant that trade was largely restricted to the region. Also, while daunting, these topographic barriers were not impenetrable. Outsiders did enter the region and people could similarly leave it.
2. River Systems
Three river systems that roughly parallel each other (West-East). The Huang He, while literally meaning “Yellow River” (1), had also acquired the label as “China’s Sorrow”. The second is the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) and the third is the Xi Jiang.
A significant portion of China’s arable land falls within the area between the Huang He and Chang Jiang. This area, the North China Plain, is the heartland of Chinese civilization. It remained the center of Chinese civilization for most of it’s dynastic history.
II. The Legendary Dynasties (2)
A. The earliest civilized society coming from the settlements of the Huang He peoples was the Xia Dynasty (~2000 BCE)
1. Located on banks of Huang He
2. Built Irrigation systems
3. Limited number of artifacts recovered.
B. Shang Dynasty (~1700 – 1027 BCE)
1. Walled Cities
2. Indications that government had access to huge labor force.
3. Frequent warfare increases need for professional soldiers (ie. Chariot training).
4. Foundation of Chinese Cultural Values Emerge
5. Self-identification as “Middle Kingdom”
6. ‘Family’ is society’s building block.
7. Male-dominant social values.
8. Social classes divided into an aristocracy (Warrior-Nobles) and peasantry (Farmers). Relationship between the aristocracy and the Shang king was Feudal (3) in nature.
9. Filial Piety (4) and Oracle Bones. (5)
10. Development of a written language. Did not reflect the variety of spoken languages; many who could not communicate orally could still communicate in writing.
C. Zhou Dynasty (~1027 – 256 BCE)
1. Adopted many cultural traits of the Shang
2. Justification for their conquest of the Shang contributed to the view of the “Mandate of Heaven”.
3. Loss of the Mandate of Heaven triggers the Dynastic Cycle.
4. A larger territory leads the Zhou to depend on an increasingly rigid feudal system for control.
5. Technological and Commercial Expansion
6. Road and Canal Construction.
7. ‘Coin’ as a medium of exchange.
8. Iron-producing furnaces.
III. A New (Violent) Era Emerges
Under the Zhou’s feudal system, local land-owning nobles (lords) became increasingly independent of the ruler. In addition, the lords became increasingly antagonistic towards each other. As the productivity of land contributed to the wealth of the lord, neighboring lords would covet the land of another.
Weakening the Zhou further were the raids conducted by northern and western peoples. Relocating the capital city (near the banks of the Huang He) did nothing to prolong the dynasty. Chinese territory shattered into competing kingdoms led by warlords/ local kings. “The Warring States Period” had begun.
1. “Yellow” meaning the color of the silt carried by the river. “Sorrow” because of the devastating floods.
2. ‘Legendary’ because of their ancient historical setting and separation from modern Chinese dynastic history which was 3rd C BCE – 20th C. CE.
3. Dependent on land ownership. Tribute went from noble to king in return for the privilege of local control.
4. Reverence for ancestors by offering prayer and respect to ancestral spirits.
5. A method of communication with the divine. Requires heating of animal bone or tortoise shell then interpreting the resulting cracks.
– World History: Patterns of Interaction
– CONVERT PREZI TO A SLIDE PRESENTATION IF BENEFICIAL
– Watch a “Prezi” presentation for this lesson at