East – West
3. 95 formal statements attacking the “pardon-merchants”. Nailed on the door of Castle church in Wittenberg. (2 words)
5. The exclusion of religious considerations from civic affairs. Additionally, the social movement toward a greater emphasis on the non-religious elements of human existence.
7. An Italian author of a famous political text that modeled its protagonist on King Ferdinand II of Spain. It was written in the vernacular.
9. A person faithful to the Roman Catholic religion, but compelled to express his views not in accord with papal policy. (2 words)
12. Benefactor, supporter, or role model for an artist.
13. A movement spearheaded by an office of the Catholic Church. Its purpose was to address the spread of heresy within Catholic Europe.
17. Sculptor and painter. Great works include “David”, “Moses”, and the Sistine Chapel.
19. This is also known as the “Catholic Reformation”. This movement was inspired and led by the Reforming Popes. It’s goal was to address the excesses of Church officials. (2 words)
21. A painter, sculptor, and scientist. Credited with such works as “The Last Supper”, the “Mona Lisa”, and the “Sforza Horse”.
22. This pope was a patron of the Arts. He commissioned works by artists like Raphael and Michelangelo. (2 words)
23. Philosophical and artistic movement emphasizing the centrality of humanity (Man).
24. A priest with a zeal to establish a fundamental Christian lifestyle in Florence. He successfully led a rebellion to overthrow the Medici. He was the organizer of “The Bonfires of the Vanities”.
25. Spanish novelist credited with writing one of the greatest novels of all time- Don Quixote.
North – South
1. Italian author of The Divine Comedy.
2. This four-armed, four-legged drawing of a man represents the Renaissance’s obsession with measuring (quantifying) nature. (2 words)
4. Author of “In Praise of Folly”.
6. An artistic technique that creates the illusion of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface.
8. This movement, accelerated by the Protestant Reformation, resulted in the establishment of non-Catholic Christian churches.
10. A category of painting employing wet plaster as a medium.
11. Patriarch of the most powerful banking family in Florence and Europe in the 15th C.
12. A category of painting whose subject and emphasis is an individual.
14. A period in European History distinguished by the reinvigorated interest in the arts and sciences of the Classical period.
15. This pope issued a papal bull endorsing the authority of the Vatican to sell indulgences. (2 words)
16. This Florentine banking family is credited for funding much of the creativity of Italian Renaissance artists and thinkers.
18. Pardons from the Pope, often in the form of a certificate, that released the holder from performing the penance prescribed for a sin.
20. A literary form focusing on the life and exploits of its author.
Pu04a_Native American Civilizations
Pu04a_Native American Civilizations
Pu04a_Native American Civilizations-Clues2
Pu03c_Early and Feudal Japan
Pu03c_Early and Feudal Japan
6. A social, political, & economic system based on land ownership.
7. Japan’s 1st shogunate. Repelled Mongols that reached Japan.
11. ‘Human-like’ or ‘Man-like’, but not necessarily in form or physical appearance.
13. Marks the gateway to a Shinto Shrine. Often found near or in a body of water.
14. ~80% of Japan is covered by this.
17. A literary (poetic) form marked by a 5-7-5 syllabic structure. Reached it’s height during the Heian Period (8th-12th C.).
18. The title of one who is entrusted with the responsibility of acting as a ‘conduit’ between the natural and supernatural worlds.
20. “Divine Wind”. Protector of Japan and mortal enemy of the Mongols.
22. One expression of Japan’s geologically active nature.
23. Families related to one another via a common ancestor.
24. A clan that has historically and traditionally been dedicated to a particular Kami. One responsibility for this type of clan is to maintain a shrine dedicated to that Kami. This tradition dates back to the prehistoric period in Japan (before 7th C).
25. The ethical code of the Samurai warrior.
26. In times of peace, the Samurai warrior becomes this for his Daimyo. It is an administrative role.
27. Capital city of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
1. Having originated, or occurring naturally, in a region or environment.
2. The watery result of an oceanic earthquake.
3. Japanese feudal warrior.
4. Capital city of modern Japan.
5. A Samurai (land-owning) lord.
8. A category of faiths that view the natural world as having a spiritual element.
Objects in nature are generally infused with a spiritual force.
9. Overall military commander of feudal Japan. Traditionally, appointed by the Emperor, but is the ‘actual’ day-to-day ruler of the state.
10. Images and/ or objects of religious reverence. Hint: Revisit the differences between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church during the Early Middle Ages.
12. A Samurai without a lord.
15. The “Divine Sun”. The top entity within Shinto’s pantheon of divine forces.
16. Japan’s indigenous religion.
17. Japan’s cultural golden age.
19. This form of Buddhism was imported from China ~6th C. It became central to the Samurai ethic for its dependence on meditation (focused thought) and self-discipline.
20. Japanese word literally translated as “divine” or “spirit”. They’re anthropomorphic forces within nature.
21. A group of islands.
6. This Medieval scholar taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope. This stance ultimately cost him his life when he was burned at the stake in 1415. 2 words
8. Area of a monastery where religiously significant objects are safeguarded or displayed.
9. An artistic style of expression that develops in the Gallic region of what was once the Roman Empire (Gaul). Presently, it’s the area of Europe where France and Germany are.
10. Justification for the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over all other Christian clergymen. 2 words
12. The sector of society and personal lifestyle that is removed from religion.
15. A member of the Church, including Priest, Bishop, and Cardinal.
19. A successful military campaign conducted on the Iberian peninsula from the High to Late Middle Ages with the expressed goal of expanding Catholic Christian territory at the expense of Muslim controlled territory. (Spanish word)
20. This Englishman preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church. He was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. 2 words
22. An architectural design often applied to church buildings. From above, it resembles a cross.
24. A conceptual understanding of the Christian community as a kingdom.
25. A significant Medieval Church theologian. In his “Summa Theologiae”, he incorporated Classical Greek logic to support Church teachings. 3 words
27. The split (1054) between the Roman Catholic Church of the West (Rome) and the Eastern Orthodox Church of the East (Constantinople). 2 words
28. A task of religious significance that all observant Catholics are expected to achieve within their lifetime.
1. An area within a monastery where monks can contemplate, pray, and tend gardens.
2. The pope who calls for the first Western-led crusade in 1092-1093.
3. This 6th C. monk established one of the earliest monastic orders. He was an Abbot and wrote a popular set of rules to organize monasteries. 2 words
4. In Medieval Europe, a military campaign with religiously inspired goals.
5. A complex of structures that served as centers for religious communities beginning in the Early Middle Ages. They were homes for monks and contributed to ‘fixing’ moving populations.
7. Area of a monastery where church objects made of precious metals are safeguarded.
10. That which is of, or associated with, the office of the Pope.
11. The selling of Church ‘offices’.
13. The Infallibility of the Pope is directly connected to this title, which reveals the Pope’s Earthly role on behalf of Jesus. 3 words
14. An empire that develops in Central Europe during the High Middle Ages and inherits the Frankish bonds with the Church. These bonds were started by Clovis, strengthened by Pepin the Short, and expanded by Charlemagne. 3 words
16. The act of awarding a Church ‘office’ by a non-clergyman (Ex.: King). 2 words
17. A venerated object used by, owned by, or part of, a religiously significant figure of the past.
18. Rules within the Roman Catholic Church carrying the weight of ‘Religious Law’. 2 words
21. An office within the Medieval Church tasked to identify and ameliorate heresies. Then, it consisted of Friars from the Dominican Order tasked to ‘Inquire’ about activities or teachings that were not in accord with official Church doctrine. Today, that office is called the “Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith”.
23. A prescribed quantity to donate on a routine basis to the Church.
26. The secular and non-secular head of a monastery.
2. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal obligations that their land ownership placed on them. They may have acquired this land via inheritance.
4. Land granted to a vassal by a lord in return for loyalty (fealty) and service.
7. The title granted to the person who has the most land in Feudal Europe, excluding clergyman. As the feudal system evolves over the centuries, the title becomes inherited, regardless of land quantity.
10. This is a type of feudal investiture involving Church offices and performed by someone who is not a clergyman. 2 words
12. An estate from which a lord’s family gained its livelihood. It was the economic heart of Feudalism.
13. A person who earns a living via agriculture. Often, they are poor.
15. A socio-economic system based on land ownership. Bonds of loyalty/ service are formed from such ownership.
16. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal responsibilities that their land ownership placed on them, including fighting. The Church was the largest landowner in Feudal Europe and thus added feudal obligations to the tasks of this group.
1. The ability to provide for all your basic needs, locally, without depending on external trade networks. 2 words
3. A ritual that symbolically confirms an agreement via the exchange of objects for service.
5. This Viking leader became vassal to a King from Western Europe in one of the earliest examples of a feudal investiture ceremony/ ritual.
6. Feudal European warrior.
8. In one of the earliest investiture ceremonies, between a Viking and a European king, this fief was granted. Its modern name evolved from it being known as the “Northmen’s Land” (Land of the Normans).
9. One who is bound in loyalty and service to a lord as a result of the investiture ceremony.
11. The Manorial village/ town evolved into an commercially active site over time. It was the home and work area for this group of skilled craftsmen.
14. Most peasants were classified as this in Feudal Europe. Though not slaves, they and their children were ‘tied’ to the land they toiled over.
Pu03d_Viking Invasions/ Migrations
Pu03d_Viking Migrations/ Invasions
4. This ‘northmen’, true to his sailing heritage, sails west and establishes settlements as far as Greenland. His red hair earns him the moniker- “The Red.”
7. This ‘northman’ continued the westward voyages of his father. Eventually, his exploratory voyages reached the North American continent.
8. This was a main target of the ‘northmen’ since they often housed gold and silver objects and were poorly defended.
10. Unlike the Germanic peoples of Western Europe, the ‘northmen’ never had contact with the Romans and thus were still this.
11. This was a Northman sword that was a metallurgical (technological) marvel for that time period. It was a weapon made of high-quality steel, thus it remained sharp longer with reduced chipping/ breakage.
1. The Northmen were this, culturally, since the sea was vital for survival and quality of life.
2. The ‘northmen’ found themselves converting to this faith as part of negotiated peace treaties (including Investiture Ceremonies) with European kingdoms.
3. This group, from the Nordic countries, begins a series of raids, starting in 793, against Christian Europe, and lasting for ~150 years. This, of course, is NOT what they called themselves.
5. When this changed in the late 8th C., it probably contributed to the ‘northmen’ migration/ invasion waves that was to follow.
6. These were the ‘pride’ of the ‘northmen’ raiders. With these, Europe’s interior became as vulnerable as the coasts.
9. The ‘northmen’ were predominantly occupied with this activity when not involved in raids or exploration.