6. This Medieval scholar taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope. This stance ultimately cost him his life when he was burned at the stake in 1415. 2 words
8. Area of a monastery where religiously significant objects are safeguarded or displayed.
9. An artistic style of expression that develops in the Gallic region of what was once the Roman Empire (Gaul). Presently, it’s the area of Europe where France and Germany are.
10. Justification for the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over all other Christian clergymen. 2 words
12. The sector of society and personal lifestyle that is removed from religion.
15. A member of the Church, including Priest, Bishop, and Cardinal.
19. A successful military campaign conducted on the Iberian peninsula from the High to Late Middle Ages with the expressed goal of expanding Catholic Christian territory at the expense of Muslim controlled territory. (Spanish word)
20. This Englishman preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church. He was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. 2 words
22. An architectural design often applied to church buildings. From above, it resembles a cross.
24. A conceptual understanding of the Christian community as a kingdom.
25. A significant Medieval Church theologian. In his “Summa Theologiae”, he incorporated Classical Greek logic to support Church teachings. 3 words
27. The split (1054) between the Roman Catholic Church of the West (Rome) and the Eastern Orthodox Church of the East (Constantinople). 2 words
28. A task of religious significance that all observant Catholics are expected to achieve within their lifetime.
1. An area within a monastery where monks can contemplate, pray, and tend gardens.
2. The pope who calls for the first Western-led crusade in 1092-1093.
3. This 6th C. monk established one of the earliest monastic orders. He was an Abbot and wrote a popular set of rules to organize monasteries. 2 words
4. In Medieval Europe, a military campaign with religiously inspired goals.
5. A complex of structures that served as centers for religious communities beginning in the Early Middle Ages. They were homes for monks and contributed to ‘fixing’ moving populations.
7. Area of a monastery where church objects made of precious metals are safeguarded.
10. That which is of, or associated with, the office of the Pope.
11. The selling of Church ‘offices’.
13. The Infallibility of the Pope is directly connected to this title, which reveals the Pope’s Earthly role on behalf of Jesus. 3 words
14. An empire that develops in Central Europe during the High Middle Ages and inherits the Frankish bonds with the Church. These bonds were started by Clovis, strengthened by Pepin the Short, and expanded by Charlemagne. 3 words
16. The act of awarding a Church ‘office’ by a non-clergyman (Ex.: King). 2 words
17. A venerated object used by, owned by, or part of, a religiously significant figure of the past.
18. Rules within the Roman Catholic Church carrying the weight of ‘Religious Law’. 2 words
21. An office within the Medieval Church tasked to identify and ameliorate heresies. Then, it consisted of Friars from the Dominican Order tasked to ‘Inquire’ about activities or teachings that were not in accord with official Church doctrine. Today, that office is called the “Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith”.
23. A prescribed quantity to donate on a routine basis to the Church.
26. The secular and non-secular head of a monastery.
2. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal obligations that their land ownership placed on them. They may have acquired this land via inheritance.
4. Land granted to a vassal by a lord in return for loyalty (fealty) and service.
7. The title granted to the person who has the most land in Feudal Europe, excluding clergyman. As the feudal system evolves over the centuries, the title becomes inherited, regardless of land quantity.
10. This is a type of feudal investiture involving Church offices and performed by someone who is not a clergyman. 2 words
12. An estate from which a lord’s family gained its livelihood. It was the economic heart of Feudalism.
13. A person who earns a living via agriculture. Often, they are poor.
15. A socio-economic system based on land ownership. Bonds of loyalty/ service are formed from such ownership.
16. This group, though normally not expected to be warriors, still satisfied feudal responsibilities that their land ownership placed on them, including fighting. The Church was the largest landowner in Feudal Europe and thus added feudal obligations to the tasks of this group.
1. The ability to provide for all your basic needs, locally, without depending on external trade networks. 2 words
3. A ritual that symbolically confirms an agreement via the exchange of objects for service.
5. This Viking leader became vassal to a King from Western Europe in one of the earliest examples of a feudal investiture ceremony/ ritual.
6. Feudal European warrior.
8. In one of the earliest investiture ceremonies, between a Viking and a European king, this fief was granted. Its modern name evolved from it being known as the “Northmen’s Land” (Land of the Normans).
9. One who is bound in loyalty and service to a lord as a result of the investiture ceremony.
11. The Manorial village/ town evolved into an commercially active site over time. It was the home and work area for this group of skilled craftsmen.
14. Most peasants were classified as this in Feudal Europe. Though not slaves, they and their children were ‘tied’ to the land they toiled over.
Pu03d_Viking Invasions/ Migrations
Pu03d_Viking Migrations/ Invasions
4. This ‘northmen’, true to his sailing heritage, sails west and establishes settlements as far as Greenland. His red hair earns him the moniker- “The Red.”
7. This ‘northman’ continued the westward voyages of his father. Eventually, his exploratory voyages reached the North American continent.
8. This was a main target of the ‘northmen’ since they often housed gold and silver objects and were poorly defended.
10. Unlike the Germanic peoples of Western Europe, the ‘northmen’ never had contact with the Romans and thus were still this.
11. This was a Northman sword that was a metallurgical (technological) marvel for that time period. It was a weapon made of high-quality steel, thus it remained sharp longer with reduced chipping/ breakage.
1. The Northmen were this, culturally, since the sea was vital for survival and quality of life.
2. The ‘northmen’ found themselves converting to this faith as part of negotiated peace treaties (including Investiture Ceremonies) with European kingdoms.
3. This group, from the Nordic countries, begins a series of raids, starting in 793, against Christian Europe, and lasting for ~150 years. This, of course, is NOT what they called themselves.
5. When this changed in the late 8th C., it probably contributed to the ‘northmen’ migration/ invasion waves that was to follow.
6. These were the ‘pride’ of the ‘northmen’ raiders. With these, Europe’s interior became as vulnerable as the coasts.
9. The ‘northmen’ were predominantly occupied with this activity when not involved in raids or exploration.
Pu03d_Early Middle Ages
1. This modern Western European nation covers a large portion of the former Frankish kingdom during it’s height, but it doesn’t contain the Frankish capital city.
4. This ancient tradition of inheritance was ignored by Louis the Pious’s sons resulting in the fracturing of the Frankish kingdom in the 9th C.
6. This type of script was developed in monasteries during the rule of Charles the Great. It introduced a few innovations in the way script is composed.
7. A period in European history marking the transition from the Classical Age to the Modern Age (Renaissance). 2 words
10. During the ‘Dark’ Ages, populations in these areas shrink drastically.
11. This empire was the surviving (Eastern) portion of the original Roman Empire. It would last until 1454.
12. This modern Western European nation is home to the former capital city of the Frankish kingdom.
14. This civilization acted as a central unifying authority in Western Europe for approximately 500 years prior to the Medieval Period.
1. This ‘Barbarian’ group contributed to the collapse of the Western portion of the Roman Empire. Their warriors were equipped with a small battle axe.
2. ‘Charles the Great’ of the Carolingian dynasty.
3. The first Frankish king to convert to Catholicism (though he was already a follower of another Christian sect; 6th C.).
5. Capital city of the Frankish kingdom at it’s height.
6. One of two ruling/ dynastic families of the Frankish kingdom. It was the family of the first Frankish kings.
8. Pepin the Short gets crowned by this religious figure. The act, politically and symbolically, bound Christian monarchs in Western Europe to the Church for centuries.
9. This town gave its name to the treaty that settled the inheritance dispute between Charlemagne’s grandsons. Centuries later, this city is the site of a famous WWII siege.
13. A tribal-based ethnic group. Among these Germanic peoples we would include the Franks.
2. Roman god of trade, profit, and commerce. Equivalent to Greek god Hermes.
4. 3rd C. Roman Emperor. Credited with reviving a weakening Roman Empire by instituting economic and political changes like the Tetrarchy.
5. Roman god of beneficial and hindering fire, including fire from volcanoes.
8. A marvelous archaeological site today, but the site of massive casualties from the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in the 1st C.
10. This is the english term used for the Latin word Imperator, the one vested with the imperium (authority granted by the fasces).
12. Roman goddess of the Moon. Equivalent to Greek goddess Selene.
15. Roman god of agriculture and harvest. Equivalent to Greek god Cronus.
16. Rome suffered through several of these when social unrest and power-hungry military leaders dominated. -2 words
17. The top (Executive) elected magistrate of the Roman Republican State. He shared his position with another of the same rank.
20. Members of Rome’s citizenry who, originally, could trace their family lineage to the founding families of Rome. Over time, membership expanded to the wealthy and influential.
22. 1st C. BCE Roman General. Crossed the Rubicon to forcefully entrench himself as Dictator. -2 words
23. Roman god of love, beauty, and fertility. Equivalent to Greek god Aphrodite.
25. Latin: “Government Rule by Three”
26. Greatest of Carthage’s generals and one of best in all recorded history.
27. It was through these structures that Roman civilization brought water to their cities.
28. Roman goddess of flowers and Spring. Equivalent to Greek god Chloris.
1. For it’s entire history, Roman civilization had practiced this type of government to a greater and lesser degree. The hallmark of this form of gov’t is the involvement of select members of society (citizens) who exercise their voting rights to choose their representatives.
3. 4th C. Roman Emperor. Elevated Christianity to a legally accepted/ practiced faith in the Roman Empire.
6. Primary military unit of the Roman Army. Roughly consisting of 4,000 soldiers.
7. 1st C. BCE – 1st C. CE Roman poet widely known to carry the favor of Augustus. Author of “The Aeneid”.
8. The series of wars against Carthage- 2 words
9. Roman god of war. Equivalent to Greek goddess Ares.
11. 5th C. Hun leader. Attacked and ransacked the city of Rome.
13. Sister and wife of the top deity in the Roman mythological pantheon. Equivalent to Greek goddess Hera.
14. 1st C. Roman chronicler of Roman Emperors and political history.
16. Roman god of erotic love and sex. Equivalent to Greek god Eros.
18. Latin: Roman Peace -2 words
19. Members of Rome’s citizenry who are socially and economically from Rome’s middle and lower hierarchical levels.
21. Half of the legislative segment of the Roman republican government. Over time, it’s membership went from exclusively Patrician to any citizen. The number of members also varied.
22. Top deity of the Roman mythological pantheon. Equivalent to Greek god Zeus.
24. Roman god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings, and endings.
1. A 1st C. CE analog computing device discovered in a Mediterranean shipwreck and attributed to Greek engineering. -2 words
4. Deities, or other non-humans, are this when they exhibit human qualities (hatred, anger, love, lust, etc.).
5. 4th C. BCE Greek mathematician from Alexandria after the Macedonian conquest of Egypt. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Father of Geometry’.
9. A blind bard whose oral stories survive today in book form. His stories preserve, as legend or myth, the exploits of heroes.
10. A form of government in which the ultimate political authority is vested in the people and exercised by them.
12. Daughter, and favored child, of the top deity in the Greek mythological pantheon. Her name was adopted by an ancient Greek city-state.
13. 4th C. BCE student of Plato and eventual tutor to Alexander the Great. His interests, unlike his mentor, also spanned the natural world and mathematics.
14. The name of the woman whose kidnapping sparked the mythical conflict between Mycenae and Troy.
18. A 5th C. BCE conflict between Greek city-states pitting Athens and its allies against Sparta and its allies. Sparta is victorious and Athenian Golden Age ends. -2 words
21. A 5th C. BCE Athenian general and statesman during the Golden Age of Greece. He was a veteran of the Persian Wars, delivered one of the most famous orations (at a funeral ceremony for dead soldiers), and a driving force behind the construction of the Parthenon.
22. A very long poem and/ or story.
23. Ancient Greek city-state.
25. After the violence that marked the Greek Dark Age comes to a halt, many of the Greek city-states come under the rule of a sovereign who uses power without any limitations.
26. After 1500 B.C., through either trade or war, the Mycenaeans came into contact with peoples from the island of Crete. The Mycenaeans adapted the writing system of these people to their Greek language.
27. During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against this city-state found on the Anatolian coast. That war has been immortalized in the stories by a famous bard.
28. Top deity in the Greek mythological pantheon.
29. A story, often dating from the distant past, whose accounts are difficult to prove with evidence. Over time, the stories serve as an educational tool revealing the values of past peoples.
2. A wave of Indo-Europeans migrated from the Eurasian steppes to Europe, India, and Southwest Asia. Some of the people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. were later called this.
3. This ancient Greek story provides an account of the war between Troy and Mycenae.
6. A period of Greek history marked by the reduction in the recording of data. The period was initiated by the invasion of the Dorians. (2 words)
7. Late 3rd C. BCE Greek mathematician, inventor/ engineer. Often hired to build ‘measuring’ devices for clients from his workshop in Syracuse.
8. The heroic ideal often revealed in ancient Greek epics.
11. Wife of the top deity in the Greek mythological pantheon.
12. Name and title of the classical world’s greatest conqueror. Credited with spreading Hellenism though he was from Macedon, not Greece. -3 words
15. A story-teller.
16. The citadel or high fortified area of an ancient Greek city.
17. Home of the Greek mythological deities. (2 words)
18. A series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BCE and lasted until 449 BCE. -2 words
19. 5th C. BCE philosopher/ teacher. Tutor of Plato and eventually charged & with subverting the minds of youth and sentenced to death. Develops the questioning method that is the foundation of modern learning.
20. A class of persons holding preferential rank and privileges often acquired via hereditary bonds.
21. 5th.-4th C. BCE Greek philosoper who was a pupil of Socrates and tutor of Aristotle. His works become the foundation of Western thought stretching to the modern era. “The Dialogues” and “The Republic” are two of his most influential works.
24. a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
Pu01b_River Valley Civilizations
East – West
3. The process for preserving human corpses developed by ancient Egyptians.
7. A person trained from an early age to serve as a ‘recorder’ of information for the rulers in Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian society. They would be amongst the very few who can read/ write (literate).
9. The political organization that the ancient Egyptian civilization developed into.
10. A massive Mesopotamian structure that marked the center of city-states and was the focal point of civic rituals.
13. The location of ancient Egypt’s great complex of monumental structures.
14. The mythical identity of the ancient Egyptian monarch after he dies and is entombed.
15. In Mesopotamian city-states, this top political figure was divinely chosen. Thus, he was not considered a god.
20. This is the topographic description of the land that dominates Mesopotamia. It was a major disadvantage since it didn’t defend against invasion and exacerbated floods. It aided farming.
22. The boy-king whose tomb opened the eyes of the world to the wonders of ancient Egyptian civilization.
25. The mythical identity of the ancient Egyptian monarch while serving as monarch.
26. A group of agricultural villages.
28. Arabic word for ‘step’ or ‘bench’.
29. A period of transition. Often marked by social unrest, war, famine, pestilence, etc.
30. Greek for ‘Land between two rivers.’
North – South
1. The terrain surrounding the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates river valleys was dominated by this. It did provide some defense against invasion.
2. Ancient Egypt’s written (phonetic) language.
4. These were unpredictable and a major disadvantage of Mesopotamian life.
5. This geographic feature contributed to ancient Egypt’s culture as well as its ability to flourish as a civilization. (2 words)
6. A crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid S-W Asia, the Nile Valley and Nile Delta. 2 words
8. The political nature adopted by the cities of Mesopotamia. 2 words
9. Roughly translates as ‘soul’ or ‘double’ in the ancient Egyptian language.
11. The river system upon which the great cities of Mesopotamia depended for it’s existence. 2 words
12. Egyptian Pharaoh often referred to as “The Great”. Ruled for 67 years and is believed, by some to be the monarch who confronted a Hebrew prophet in a biblical story. (Two words)
16. This period marks the third and final segment of Egyptian history. (2 words)
17. Period in Egyptian history that witnessed the construction of the Giza pyramids. (2 words)
18. Ancient Egypt’s monumental structures.
19. This social group resided at the bottom of the Egyptian hierarchy.
20. Generally accepted title for the king of ancient Egypt.
21. An area at the southern portion of Mesopotamia, where the Tigris-Euphrates empties into the Persian Gulf (Mouth of the Tigris-Euphrates)
23. Egypt’s monumental structures were built for this purpose.
24. One of the most basic of technological innovations. Transportation then and now can hardly be imagined without this object.
27. The ancient Egyptian goddess responsible for overseeing universal balance. The Egyptian monarch is responsible for maintaining this balance via good leadership and conduct.